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History of Islam


Hijrah (Migration)
© Suhel Farooq Khan


Literal meaning of Hijrah is migration.
The Messenger of Allah, Muhammad S and his Sahabah (Companions) migrated to Madinah from Makkah.
People belonging to the Quraysh tribe of Makkah used to ridicule, abuse and torture the early Muslims, most of whom were from the Quraysh tribe. Allah (God) gave the Messenger of Allah, Muhammad S permission for Muslims to migrate to Madinah to save themselves and their families from the cruelty, torture and sufferings in Makkah. Arabs, known for their kinship, turned enemy of the Messenger of Allah, Muhammad S who was also one of them from the Quraysh tribe.

Hijrah (Migration) was the turning point in the history of Islam.
Allah (God) turned that great human tragedy which forced Muslims to leave their birthplace empty handed with only clothes on their bodies; into a great boon. Islamic Calendar begins from this event and is known as the Hijrah Calendar.

The Problem began in 610 CE

The Messenger of Allah, Muhammad S became the Rasul (Messenger) of Allah (God) in the year in 610 CE, thirteen (13) years before the Hijrah, when he was about forty (40) years of age.
Soon after becoming the last Rasul (Messenger) of Allah (God), he began inviting people to Islam. For the first three years the Messenger of Allah, Muhammad S invited people to the path of Allah (God) secretly and invited only his close relatives and friends to Islam.
In the year 10BH (Before Hijrah) (614 CE), Allah (God) commanded His Messenger, Muhammad S to declare Islam publicly.

The Messenger of Allah, Muhammad S began inviting everyone to Islam, without caring for the consequences. Leaders of the Quraysh tribe, one of the most respected and powerful tribes of Arabia, did not like it.
The Messenger of Allah, Muhammad S also belonged to the most respected family of the Quraysh tribe. Most of the Quraysh were settled in and around the city of Makkah. This powerful Quraysh tribe consisted of many strong and influential families.
They used to worship idols. The chief of Quraysh was Abu Talib bin 'Abdul Muttalib, an uncle of the Messenger of Allah, Muhammad S, took him under his loving care after the death of his grandfather ‘Abdul Muttalib. 'Abdullah bin ‘Abdul Muttalib, the father of the Messenger of Allah, Muhammad S, died at a very young age, a few months before his birth. Besides being the chief of the Quraysh, ‘Abdul Muttalib was also the caretaker of the Ka'bah, the most important place of worship in Arabia.

Root of the Problem

Long ago, the Ka'bah was constructed in Makkah by two prominent Rusul (Messengers) Ibrahim A (Abraham) and his elder son Isma'il A (Ishmael), ancestors of the last Rasul (Messenger) of Allah (God).
The Ka'bah was the first House for the worship of Allah (God), the One and Only Creator and Sustainer of the universe. The city of Makkah was built around the Ka'bah.
With time, people forgot the message of Islamic Monotheism taught by Ibrahim A (Abraham) and Isma'il A (Ishmael). They began praying to other gods and deities besides Allah (God) and almost every tribe in Arabia devised their own idols for worshipping.

During these changes, the Ka’bah still remained the central place of worship and the tradition of annual Hajj (Pilgrimage to the Ka’bah) continued from the times of Ibrahim A (Abraham) and Isma'il A (Ishmael). The annual event of Hajj (Pilgrimage to the Ka’bah) continued to bring a lot of pilgrims into Makkah.

The pilgrims also brought a lot of business to Makkah with them, benefiting the Quraysh, who were the caretakers of the Ka’bah.

Hashim, the great-grandfather of the Messenger of Allah, Muhammad S, had organized the trading business by sending large trading caravans to out of Makkah. He had also made treaties with all tribes and kingdoms on the route of his caravan for its safe passage through their territories.
This remakable achievement converted Makkah, the spiritual capital of Arabia, into the trading capital as well.
Makkah became the most sought after destination for pilgrimage and trading. Reputation and prosperity of the Quraysh went on increasing year after year. In order to keep their visitors happy, they went along with their sentiments. The Quraysh themselves as well as visitors of the Ka’bah installed many idols in and around it.
In the times of the Messenger of Allah, Muhammad S, the Ka'bah had over 300 idols. It meant good business for the Quraysh.

Islam recognized and worshipped Only Allah (God), and was against the idols and ideals of Quraysh. Islam began attracting some members of the Quraysh tribe. Although in its initial phase, Islam was spreading at a very slow pace, its very concept caused a lot of alarm bells in the Quraysh camps, because it threatened their spiritual leadership position.
They shivered at the thought of replacing hundreds of gods, revered by a multitude of tribes, with only One. It meant a reduction in their income in the same proportion. Quraysh elders and chiefs were unanimous in opposing Islam.

Initially, they tried to lure the Messenger of Allah, Muhammad S, away from his 'newly found' religion. Then they tried to intimidate him.
With the failure of this strategy also, they decided to stop Islam fiercely and aggressively and waged an all out war. There were no holds barred, and Arabs who were famous for respecting their kinship, who used to wage bloody battles that lasted for ever, to defend and take revenge of their tribesmen, went after their own in the most brutal and barbaric manner.
The Quraysh began attacking the Messenger of Allah, Muhammad S and his handful of Sahabah (Companions). Although the Messenger of Allah, Muhammad S belonged to the most respected clan Banu (Family of) Hashim of the Quraysh tribe; the opponents of Islam did not care for his lineage or family’s social status and began abusing, ridiculing and torturing him at every opportunity. The Messenger of Allah, Muhammad S tolerated all hostilities and abuse without showing any sign of weakness or retaliation and continued spreading the Word of Allah (God).
Slowly, invitation of the Messenger of Allah, Muhammad S, to the True Path began showing results. The number of his Sahabah (Companions) was increasing slowly and steadily.

Every year, pilgrims from allover Arabia used to come to Makkah for the pilgrimage of Ka'bah. The main pilgrimage was known as Hajj (Annual pilgrimage to Makkah), a tradition started by Ibrahim A (Abraham). These pilgrims used to setup numerous camps in and around Makkah. Some of the camps used to be at 'Ukaz, Majannah, Mina and Dhul Majaz.

Messenger of Allah S continued the Mission

The Messenger of Allah, Muhammad S used to go to those camps and meet people in their camps to introduce Islam to them and invite them to it. Abu Lahab bin 'Abdul Muttalib, an uncle of the Messenger of Allah, Muhammad S and a prominent Quraysh leader, was one of the worst enemies of Islam and Muhammad S.
He followed Muhammad S to these camps where the Messenger of Allah S, used to give the message of Allah (God) to people. Abu Lahab bin 'Abdul Muttalib used to tell the same people that Muhammad S was a liar. Abu Lahab bin 'Abdul Muttalib also used to hit Muhammad S with stones. This behavior of Abu Lahab bin 'Abdul Muttalib was very strange for those times. Families were very closely knit and united. Elders of the family loved their young. They would do any thing to protect their family.

S was very patient. Muhammad S never reacted to the excesses of Abu Lahab bin 'Abdul Muttalib. Muhammad S continued to call people to the right path. Year after year, Muhammad S approached every tribe with the message of Allah (God). People made fun of Muhammad S. Muhammad S did not loose his patience. Quraysh insulted and tortured Muhammad S and the Muslims.

For the first few years, Islam remained a faith of only very few persons. The first person to accept Islam was Khadijah bint Khuwaylid R. She was the wife of Muhammad S. First male to convert to Islam was a rich trader and a friend of Muhammad S, Abu Bakr R. First youth to convert to Islam was 'Ali bin Abu Talib R. 'Ali bin Abu Talib R was a cousin of Muhammad S.

Poor and oppressed of Makkah were also attracted to this new faith Islam. Islam made every human being equal. Islam fought for human rights. Islam gave the very first message of social equality. Islam brought the first message of universal brotherhood.

One of the early converts was a slave named Khubab bin al Arrat R. Quraysh put him on the bed of burning coal trying to bring him back to their old religion of idol-worship. One person pressed his chest with his foot and forced Khubab bin al Arrat R to remain on the fire-bed until it cooled down. He was asked to forego his new religion Islam. He tolerated all the torture but did not move from Islam.
Bilal R was also a slave. The Quraysh also tortured him similarly. His master, Umayyah bin Khalaf used to put him on the burning sands of Makkah during noon-hours. He used to put a large rock on the chest of Bilal R so that he could not move butBilal R remained firm on Islam.
Yasir R and his wife Sumayyah R, other slaves who were among thearly Muslims, were tortured and killed by Quraysh. Sumayyah R was the first martyr of Islam. They were the parents of 'Ammar R who was also one of the early converts of Islam. Quraysh tortured these early Muslims severly.

Some of the early Muslims wanted to get away from these hardships. They took permission of Muhammad S, to get away from Makkah. With the permission of Muhammad S, the first Hijrah (migration) took place in the year 9BH (Before Hijrah) (Before Muhammad S migrated to Madinah). A small group of Muslims migrated to Habash (Ethiopia). These migrants walked from Makkah to the coast. On the coast, they found boats, which carried them to Habash (Ethiopia).
Muslims of Makkah continued migrating to Habash (Ethiopia) to save themselves from the torture of Quraysh. Their numbers increased to eighty-three (83). King Najjashi (Negus) of Habash (Ethiopia) welcomed the Muslim immigrants. King Najjashi (Negus) was a Christian. He allowed the Muslims to live in Habash (Ethiopia) in peace.

The Quraysh of Makkah did not like it. They wanted to bring the Muslims back to Makkah to punish them. They sent two of their leaders to Habash (Ethiopia) as Ambassadors. They were 'Amr bin al 'As and 'Abdullah bin Abu Rabi'ah. They took many expensive gifts for King Najjashi (Negus). The two Quraysh ambassadors requested King Najjashi (Negus) to hand over the migrant Muslims to them. They told the king that these Muslims were their criminals. The Quraysh also told him that these Muslims had insulted the religion of their forefathers and joined a new religion.

King Najjashi (Negus) asked the Muslims about their new religion. Ja'far bin Abu Talib R explained their new faith to the King. He explained that they were ignorant. They also used to worship idols. They indulged in a lot of immoral activities. They did not care for their relatives or neighbors. They used to bury their daughters. Then Allah (God) sent a Rasul (Messenger) to them. Allah (God) sent his religion to them through Muhammad S. Ja'far bin Abu Talib R explained that now they pray only to Allah (God). Now they speak the truth. They take care of their families, friends and neighbors. They pay dues to the needy and poor. They always follow the right path. King Najjashi (Negus) told the Quraysh that he did not see any thing wrong with their new religion.
Next day, the Quraysh ambassadors tried a trick on the Christian King Najjashi (Negus). The Quraysh tried to turn the Christian King Najjashi (Negus) hostile towards the Muslims. They told the King that Muslims do not respect 'Isa A (Jesus) as the Son of God. This angered King Najjashi (Negus). He asked the Muslims to clarify their position. The leader of immigrant Muslims, Ja'far bin Abu Talib R recited a few Ayah (Verses) from Surah Maryam (Mary) of the Qur-an. Ja'far bin Abu Talib R explained to the King and his court that the Muslims believe that Allah (God) does not have any children or parents. Muslims believe that 'Isa A (Jesus) is a Rasul (Messenger) of Allah (God), just like Muhammad S. Pious and innocent Maryam (Mary) gave birth to 'Isa (Jesus) without any father, by the command of Allah (God).

King Najjashi (Negus) attentively listened to him. He even wept when Ja'far bin Abu Talib R was reciting from Qur-an. He told the Muslims that both Islam and Christianity are two sides of the same coin. King Najjashi (Negus) was a just King. He promised safety to Muslims in his kingdom. He told the Quraysh that Muslims were his guests and they were free to live in his kingdom for as long as they wish. King Negus assured Muslims that they would be safe in his kingdom.

The Quraysh leaders had to return to Makkah empty handed. Immigrant Muslims lived in peace in Habash (Ethiopia). Once the immigrant Muslims heard a rumor that everybody in Makkah had accepted Islam. Most of them returned to Makkah. In Makkah, they found out that it was not true. This time, the Quraysh of Makkah tortured them more. Many of them went back to Habash (Ethiopia). This time, one hundred and one (101) Muslims migrated. There were eleven women in that group. The Quraysh thought that these Muslims would not be able to settle down in Habash (Ethiopia). The Quraysh thought that the Muslims would soon return to Makkah. The Quraysh thought that the Muslims would beg for their mercy. The Muslim migrants got a very friendly treatment in Habash. King Najjashi (Negus) of Habash (Ethiopia) treated them very nicely. Quraysh did not like it. The Quraysh boycotted Muhammad S and his family in the year 7BH (Before Hijrah) (Before Muhammad S migrated to Madinah) (615 AD). Muhammad S and his family were not allowed to live in Makkah. They went to live in a mountain-pass. It was called Shi'b Abu Talib. This mountain-pass was owned by Abu Talib bin 'Abdul Muttalib. Abu Talib bin 'Abdul Muttalib was one of the uncles of Muhammad S. Muhammad S belonged to the Banu Hashim clan of the Quraysh tribe. The entire family of Muhammad S joined him in this boycott. All of them left their houses. They went to live with the Muslims to the Shi'b Abu Talib. They suffered with Muhammad S for three years. Most of them had not accepted Islam at that time. Abu Lahab bin 'Abdul Muttalib was the only person from Banu (Family of) Hashim who did not join Muhammad S. He joined the boycott. Abu Lahab bin 'Abdul Muttalib was also an uncle of Muhammad S. He was one of the worst enemies of Islam and Muhammad S. 'Arab families used to stand united. This behavior of Abu Lahab bin 'Abdul Muttalib was very strange and abnormal. During the boycott, no one was allowed to talk to Muslims and members of Banu Hashim and Banu (Family of) al-Muttalib. No one was allowed to trade with Muslims and members of Banu Hashim and Banu (Family of) al-Muttalib. They suffered for three years. They lived in the open, under the hot sun. They went without much food. Muslims tolerated the hardships because of their faith in Allah (God). This boycott started in 7BH (Before Hijrah) (Before Muhammad S migrated to Madinah) (615 AD). This boycott ended in 4BH (Before Hijrah) (Before Muhammad S migrated to Madinah) (618 AD). The same year Muhammad S lost two of his great supporters. First, he lost his wife Khadijah bint Khuwaylid R. Khadijah bint Khuwaylid R was the first wife of Muhammad S. They remained happily married for twenty-five (25) years. They were an ideal couple. Khadijah bint Khuwaylid R was a true friend and companion of Muhammad S. Khadijah bint Khuwaylid R was the first person to become a Muslim. She believed in Muhammad S and his mission without any hesitation. She gave Muhammad S her total support. She gave strength and reassurance to Muhammad S whenever he needed it. Khadijah R also gave six children to Muhammad S. The death of Khadijah R was a great loss to Muhammad S. A few months later, his Uncle Abu Talib died. Abu Talib was the chief of the Quraysh of Makkah. He was a mentor to Muhammad S. Muhammad S was raised by his grandfather 'Abdul Muttalib. Abu Talib raised Muhammad S after the death of 'Abdul Muttalib. Both, Khadijah R and Abu Talib, shielded Muhammad S and his followers from Quraysh. Quraysh were trying their best to crush Islam. They continued to torture Muhammad S and his Sahabah (Companions). There was very little hope in Makkah, for the mission of Muhammad S. Muhammad S tried to take the message of Allah (God) to people living near Makkah. Muhammad S went to a place called Ta'if. People of Ta'if did not listen to his message. They treated him very badly. They made fun of him. People of Ta'if sent their children to hurt Muhammad S. They attacked Muhammad S with stones. Muhammad S was hurt both physically and emotionally. He returned to Makkah. Muhammad S did not loose patience. Every year many pilgrims used to come to Ka'bah. Muhammad S used to go to different tribes who had come for the pilgrimage. Muhammad S used to invite pilgrims to the path of Allah (God). Muhammad S invited people during the boycott also. Pilgrims saw the torture on Muhammad S and his companions. They also saw the injustice of Quraysh on Muslims. Many pilgrims had sympathy with Muhammad S. Muhammad S continued inviting people to the religion of Allah (God). Madinah was known as Yathrib before Muhammad S settled there. There were two main 'Arab tribes in Yathrib. They were Aus and Khazraj tribes. Besides these two tribes of 'Arabs, many Jewish tribes also lived in Madinah. Both Aus and Khazraj tribes used to fight each other. The Jewish tribes benefited from their fights. In the month of Rajab (Seventh month of Islamic Calendar) of 3BH (Before Hijrah) (619 AD), Muhammad S met some people from Madinah. They were from Khazraj tribe of Madinah. Muhammad S invited them to the path of Allah (God). Six people from Madinah embraced Islam. They were: 1. Abu al Hathim bin Taihan R 2. Abu Umamah As'ad bin Zurarah R 3. 'Awf bin Harith R 4. Rafe' bin Malik bin 'Ajlan R 5. Qitbah bin 'Amir bin Hadidah R and 6. Jabir bin 'Abdullah bin Ri'ab R They were the first Muslims from Madinah. Next year, more pilgrims came from Madinah. They met Muhammad S during the pilgrimage. This time twelve people became Muslims. All of them took Ba'yt (Pledge of allegiance). This is known as Ba'yt 'Uqbah ula (The first pledge of allegiance at a place called 'Uqbah). They wanted to learn all about Islam. They requested Muhammad S for a teacher. Muhammad S sent a Sahabi (Companion) to Madinah. His name was Mus’ab bin 'Umayr R. Mus'ab bin 'Umayr R worked very hard, in and around Madinah. Many people in Madinah became Muslim. The chief of the Aus tribe, Sa'd bin Mu'az R also accepted Islam. During the pilgrimage of 1BH (Before Hijrah) a group of seventy-two (72) people came from Madinah. They were from the Aus and Khazraj tribes. They had come to meet Muhammad S. Muhammad S met them. Ba'yt 'Uqbah Thaniyah (Second pledge of allegiance at a place called 'Uqbah) took place. All of them accepted Islam. Muhammad S selected twelve Naqib (Leaders) from that group. Nine (9) Naqib (Leaders) were from the Khazraj tribe. Three (3) Naqib (Leaders) were from the Aus tribe. All of them were leaders of their own clans. Most of the people of Madinah followed their leaders. People of Madinah accepted Islam. It was a turning point for Islam. Muslims and Islam found a base in Madinah. Quraysh continued to hurt and insult Muhammad S and his Sahabah (Companions). Muslims of Makkah knew that many people have accepted Islam in Madinah. A group of Muslims asked Muhammad S for permission to migrate to Madinah. Muhammad S permitted them to migrate to Madinah. Muslims began migrating to Madinah. Only Muhammad S, Abu Bakr R, Ali R and a few more Muslims were left in Makkah. Quraysh had become very frustrated because of Hijrah (Migration) of Muslims to Madinah. Some of the Muslims could not migrate due to poverty. The torture of Quraysh increased for them. Most of these Muslims were slaves, women and children. One of the early migrants was 'Abdullah bin al Ashhal R. Soon after, Bilal R migrated. He was a slave. Abu Bakr R had bought him his freedom. Then 'Ammar bin Yasar R migrated. 'Umar bin Khattab R migrated with twenty Muslims after them. Some of the Muslims who migrated with him were: Sa'id bin Zayd Khunays bin Huzafah 'Amr bin Suraqah 'Abdullah bin Suraqah Waqid bin 'Abdullah Khauli bin Abu Khauli Ayas bin Bukayr 'Aqil bin Bukayr 'Amir bin Bukayr and Khalid bin Bukayr Allah had already guided Muhammad S for migrating to Madinah. Surah Isra (The Night Journey) Qur-an 17:80: O my Lord! Let my entry be by the gate of truth and honor, and likewise my exit by the gate of truth and honor; and grant me from you an authority to aid (me)." And say: "Truth has (now) arrived, and falsehood perished: for falsehood is (by its nature) bound to perish. Hijrah (Migration) to Madinah is one of the most important events in the history of Islam. Muhammad S did not migrate to save himself and his Sahabah (Companions) from the torture of Quraysh. Muhammad S planned this Hijrah (Migration), only to spread the message of Allah (God). Why Muhammad S and his Sahabah (Companions) went to Madinah, and not for Habash (Ethiopia)? Muslims had earlier made two Hijrah (Migration) before the final one to Madinah. Both times they had migrated to Habash (Ethiopia). Muslims were received very well in Habash (Ethiopia). They could have lived there in peace forever. When Muhammad S thought about the third Hijrah (Migration), he received many invitations. The tribe of Daus was an Arab tribe. They had a strong fort. The chief of Daus tribe invited Muhammad S. His name was Tufayl bin 'Amr R. Muhammad S thanked him but refused his offer. Some time later, Muhammad S saw a dream. In his dream Muhammad S saw the place for the Hijrah (Migration) of Muslims. That place had a lot of trees. Muhammad S discussed his dream with his Sahabah (Companions). They thought that this place could be either Yamamah or Hijr. Habash (Ethiopia) had hosted immigrant Muslims in two earlier Hijrah (Migrations). The city of Yathrib (Madinah) got the final honor of hosting Muslims. Yathrib (Madinah) was the city chosen for Hijrah (Migration). Madinah was known as Yathrib (Madinah) before Muhammad S migrated there. Most Sahabah (Companions of Muhammad S) had migrated to Yathrib (Madinah). Muhammad S stayed back in Makkah. Some Muslims were still in Makkah. They helped Muhammad S in spreading Islam. Hijrah (Migration) had been a tradition of Rusul (Messengers). Many Rusul (Messengers) were tortured and hurt by their own people. All Rusul (Messengers) had migrated. Rasul (Messengers) usually migrated to new lands. They left their own people, because their people did not listen to the message. Some Rusul (Messengers) took their followers to new lands. Hijrah (Migration) was also a Sunnah of Ibrahim A. Traditions of Rusul (Messengers) are called Sunnah. Hijrah (Migration) of Muhammad S was different than the Hijrah (Migration) of other Rusul (Messengers). Muhammad S made his Hijrah (Migration), but he did not leave his people. He went to a new place, but it was not an alien land. Muhammad S went to a place, which was very close to his birthplace, Makkah. He did not want to go too far from Makkah. Makkah had Ka'bah. Ka'bah was the first place of worship of Allah. Yathrib (Madinah) was not too far from Makkah. Allah wanted Makkah to remain the spiritual center of Islam. Madinah was earlier known as Yathrib (Madinah). Jews had established the city of Yathrib (Madinah). Families of two brothers, Aus and Khazraj came to Yathrib (Madinah) from Yaman. Yaman was a Kingdom in the southern part of Arabia. Yaman was an advanced civilization. A great flood destroyed most of Yaman. The Jews of Yathrib, were wealthy and powerful. Both the brothers Aus and Khazraj, became partners of the Jews. Two separate tribes of Aus and Khazraj started from the two brothers. Both of these tribes became wealthy. Both the tribes also became powerful. The Jews cancelled their partnership with them. They wanted to control Aus and Khazraj. These two tribes of Aus and Khazraj were very friendly with each other. Aus and Khazraj defeated the Jews together. Aus and Khazraj ruled over the Jews. Later, the two tribes of Aus and Khazraj began to fight each other. They fought a bloody battle at Ba'th. The Jews arranged a settlement between the two tribes. Both Aus and Khazraj tribes were broken by the war of B'ath. The Jews were stronger than each of these tribes. Jews took back the control of Yathrib (Madinah). Aus and Khazraj together were able to hold the Jews. Aus and Khazraj were very weak, alone. Both Aus and Khazraj were looking for new partners. Both wanted to regain the control of Yathrib (Madinah) from the Jews. They had approached the Quraysh of Makkah. Quraysh rejected their offer of partnership. The tribes of Aus and Khazraj were idol-worshippers. But they had been in close contact of Jews. They knew well about Rusul (Messengers) and the Books sent by Allah (God). They saw Muhammad S and Muslims during the pilgrimage in Makkah. Both, Aus and Khazraj tribes saw an ultimate partner in Muhammad S. They wanted to become partners of the Rasul (Messenger) of Allah (God). They knew that by doing so, the mercy and support of Allah will be with them. They rushed to Muhammad S and took his Ba'yt (Pledge of Allegiance). Yathrib (Madinah) had the same culture as Makkah. There was a close relationship between the two cities. Muhammad Swas also related with Yathrib (Madinah). The maternal uncles of his grandfather lived there. His father was buried in Yathrib (Madinah). His mother had visited his father's grave there. She died on the way back to Makkah, at a place called Abwa’. Yathrib (Madinah) was located at a very strategic point. It was close to the trade routes of Quraysh to Sham. This gave the Muslims in Yathrib (Madinah) an advantage. The trade of Makkah became risky. Yathrib (Madinah) became Madinah when Muhammad S migrated there. Madinah means the city. It was a shorter version of Madinatun Nabi. Madinatun Nabi means city of the Rasul (Messenger). Madinah gave the followers of Islam a city of their own. Selection of Madinah as a place for Hijrah was ideal. Muhammad S was still in Makkah. His own city was planning against him. Muhammad S was the most honored son of Makkah. Now, he had become the leader of the city of Yathrib (Madinah) without even going there. Quraysh of Makkah did not like to see the influence of Muhammad S to grow One day, the Quraysh met in the Darul Nadwah near Ka'bah. They took the final decision on Muhammad S. They decided to kill Muhammad S. Abu Jahl suggested that each Quraysh clan should send one person for the job. They decided that all of them would attack Muhammad S together and kill him. By doing so, all of them will share the responsibility of murder. The clan of Muhammad S, Banu (Family of) Hashim would not be able to take revenge against so many Quraysh clans. The selected people surrounded the house of Muhammad S. People who were picked to kill Muhammad S included: Abu Jahl bin Hisham Hakam bin Abu al 'As ‘Aqbah bin Abu Mu'it Nadr bin Harith Umayyah bin Khalaf Zam'ah bin al Aswad Tu'aymah bin 'Adi Abu Lahab bin ‘Abdul Muttalib Ubayy bin Khalaf Nubayh bin al Hajjaj and Munabbah bin al Hajjaj. They waited for Muhammad S outside his house. Arabs did not enter the house of even their worst enemy. Muhammad S had already planned for his Hijrah (Migration). Only Abu Bakr R, 'Ali bin Abu Talib R and their families knew about his plan of Hijrah (Migration). Abu Bakr R had kept two well-fed she-camels ready for this trip. Quraysh were waiting outside the house of Muhammad S. In the middle of the night, all of them fell asleep. Surah al-Anfal (The Spoils) Qur-an 8:30: Remember how the unbelievers plotted against you, to keep you in bounds, or kill you or get you out (of your home). They plot and plan and Allah too plans, but the best of planners is Allah. While the killers were sleeping, Muhammad S came out of his house. He left the sacred city of Makkah. He left the city where he was born. 'Ali bin Abu Talib R slept in the bed of Muhammad S. 'Ali bin Abu Talib R could have lost his life. 'Ali bin Abu Talib R risked his life for the love Muhammad S. Quraysh thought that Muhammad S was still inside his home. Muhammad S went to the house of Abu Bakr R. Abu Bakr R was the closest friend of Muhammad S. Both friends started on the long journey for Hijrah (Migration) on foot. Muhammad S and Abu Bakr R reached the Mount Thaur. Mount Thaur is located three miles south of Makkah. For three days, Muhammad S and Abu Bakr R hid themselves in a cave of Mount Thaur. 'Abdullah bin Abu Bakr R, son of Abu Bakr R, used to watch the activities of Quraysh during the day. In the evening, he used to inform Muhammad S about those activities. Asma' bint Abu Bakr R, daughter of Abu Bakr R, used to bring food for them in the evening. 'Amir bin Fuhayrah R, used to graze Abu Bakr R's goats during the day. He used to bring them near the cave in evening. This erased the foot prints of Asma' bint Abu Bakr R also. Muhammad S and Abu Bakr R, used to take their milk. 'Amir bin Fuhayrah R was a freed slave of Abu Bakr R. In Makkah, the Quraysh were very angry. They tried their best to find Muhammad S and Abu Bakr R. They could not find them. One day a search party of Quraysh came very close to their hideout. They came within few steps of the cave, where Muhammad S and Abu Bakr R were hiding. Abu Bakr R became worried, but Muhammad S calmed him down. Muhammad S told Abu Bakr R that Allah (God) will protect them. Qur-an has mentioned about it. Surah at-Taubah (Repentance) Qur-an 9:40: If ye help not (the Prophet, it is no matter): for Allah did indeed help him, when the unbelievers drove him out: being the second of the two were in the cave, and he said to his companion, "Have no fear, for Allah is with us": then Allah sent down His peace upon him, and strengthened him with forces which ye saw not, and humbled to the depths the word of the unbelievers. But the word of Allah is exalted in might, wise. A spider covered the opening of the cave where Muhammad S and Abu Bakr R were hiding, with its web. A pigeon settled down in front of the opening of the cave and laid eggs. The search party of Quraysh came very close to the cave. They saw the spider's web and the pigeon’s nest. They thought that no one had gone inside the cave. Because no body could have entered the cave without disturbing the spider's web and the nest and pigeons. The search party returned from the cave. The Quraysh wanted Muhammad S and Abu Bakr R. The Quraysh announced an award of one hundred camels to for bringing Muhammad S and Abu Bakr R. Muhammad S and Abu Bakr R waited in that cave for three days. 'Abdullah bin Arqam R, reached the cave on the fourth day. He brought the two she-camels of Abu Bakr R, with him. He had agreed to be their guide for their journey to Yathrib (Madinah). All of them proceeded for Yathrib (Madinah). Muhammad S took the she-camel named Qaswah. 'Amir bin Fuhayrah R was also with them. They took their supplies with them. Muhammad S and his party left the Cave of Thaur on a Monday. It was the 5th day of Rabi' al Awwal (Third month of the Islamic Calendar). Muhammad S and his small party started out on their historic journey in darkness. On Tuesday they stopped for rest at a place called Qudayd. They started out from there after taking some rest. Soon, a Quraysh named Suraqah bin Ja’sham, saw them. Suraqah bin Ja’sham was riding a horse. He tried to come near Muhammad S, but his horse fell down. He followed the ancient superstition of 'Arabs. He tried to decide his next move by drawing arrows. The draw advised him not to go near Muhammad S. Suraqah bin Ja’sham was tempted by the big reward to catch Muhammad S and Abu Bakr R. He tried for the second time. He wanted to bring his horse near Muhammad S. This time the legs of his horse sunk in sand. Suraqah bin Ja’sham was now scared. He begged for mercy from Muhammad S. Muhammad S pardoned him and allowed him to go back safely. On the way to Yathrib (Madinah), Muhammad S and his party passed through al Kharrar Thaniyat al Marah Laqf Madlajah Laqf Madlajah Mijaj Marjah Mijaj Batn Marjah Batn Dhat Kashd (or Kishd) al Hada'id al Adhakhir They offered their Salah Maghrib (Prayer after sunset) at Batn Righ. From Batn Righ, they moved and crossed Dhu Salam Madlajah al 'Uthaniyah Batn al Qahah, and descended down al 'Arj. From there they passed through al Jadawat, then through al Ghabir to the right of Rakubah. They descended down Batn al 'Aqiq till they reached al Jathijathah. From here they proceeded by the way of al Zabyi untill they emerged at al 'Usbah. Muslims were eagerly waiting for Muhammad S in Yathrib (Madinah). Muslims in Yathrib (Madinah) knew that Muhammad S had left Makkah. Every day Muslims used to gather outside Yathrib (Madinah) for receiving Muhammad S. Every day they used to wait for Muhammad S till noon. Every day they used to wait for Muhammad S, as long as they could bear the hot sun. Every day they used to return to their homes disappointed. They did the same on the 12th of Rabi' al Awwal (Third month of the Islamic Calendar). Muslims of Yathrib (Madinah) had waited for their beloved leader till noon. They had just returned to their homes, when Muhammad S and his party were seen coming towards Yathrib (Madinah). A Jew of Yathrib (Madinah) saw them coming. He announced the arrival of Muhammad S. Muslims from all over Yathrib ran to greet their leader. Yathrib (Madinah) shook with the slogans of Allahu Akbar (God is Great). Muhammad S reached Quba on 12 Rabi' al Awwal at noon time. The upper region of Yathrib (Madinah) was known as Quba. Many Muslim families lived in Quba. Muhammad S stopped in Quba. Kulthum bin al Hidam R, got the honor of being his host. Kulthum bin al Hidam R was the chief of Bani 'Amr bin 'Auf. Muhammad S was known as Al Amin (The honest one). People used to keep their valuables with him. 'Ali bin Abu Talib R stayed in Makkah for three days after Muhammad S migrated to Yathrib (Madinah). Muhammad S had told him to return those valuables to their owners. 'Ali bin Abu Talib R returned all of the valuables to their owners. 'Ali bin Abu Talib R he left Makkah. He joined Muhammad S in Quba. Muhammad S stayed in Quba for fourteen (14) days. He put the foundations of a Masjid (Mosque) in Quba. After fourteen days, Muhammad S left for Yathrib. He was riding on his she-camel Qaswah. When he reached at the place of Banu Sulaym, it was the time of Salah (Prayers). It was a Friday. Muhammad S offered his Salah Jum'a (Friday prayers) here. Before the prayers, he delivered his Khutbah (Sermon). It was the first-ever Salah Jum'a (Friday prayers) of Muhammad S. This was also the first Khutbah (Sermon) delivered by Muhammad S. Salah Jum'a (Friday prayers) had started in Yathrib (Madinah) long before Muhammad S arrived there. After Salah Jum'a (Friday prayers), Muhammad S started for Yathrib (Madinah). A big crowd was waiting for Muhammad S in Yathrib (Madinah). The entire city of Yathrib (Madinah) gathered to catch a glimpse of their beloved leader. The young, the old, the children and the women and the girls were all there. They crowded both sides of the way to greet Muhammad S. Many people climbed the date trees. The girls and the women climbed the roofs of the houses to have a look at the Rasul (Messenger) of Allah (God). Finally, Muhammad S arrived in Yathrib (Madinah). He was riding his favorite she-camel Qaswah. It was the most memorable day in the history of Yathrib (Madinah). Every one from every tribe wanted the honor of hosting Muhammad S. All of the rich and the powerful men from all of the tribes were there to receive Muhammad S. They invited Muhammad S to live in their houses. Muhammad S did not want to hurt anyone. Muhammad S did not choose the place where he would stay. He let her she-camel Qaswah choose it Muhammad S let Qaswah go around in the city, on her own. Qaswah stopped at a vacant piece of land. That land belonged to two orphan brothers. The names of those brothers were Sahl and Suhayl. Muhammad S asked for that piece of land. Muhammad S paid for the land. ????? Muhammad S wanted to build a Masjid (Mosque) there. He decided to build his living quarters also at the same place. Construction of the Masjid (Mosque) began right away. Every Muslim worked in the construction. Muhammad S also worked like every one. This Masjid (Mosque) was named Masjid Nabi (Mosque of the Messenger). During its construction, Muhammad S was looking for a temporary place to stay. Abu Ayyub Khalid bin Zayd bin Kulayb Ansari R offered his house to Muhammad S. He was from Banu Malik bin Najjar tribe. Maternal uncles of ‘Abdul Muttalib, grandfather of Muhammad S, were from the same tribe. The house of Abu Ayyub R was double storied. His family shifted to the upper floor. The lower floor was given to Muhammad S. People began calling Yathrib (Madinah) as Madinatun Nabi (The city of the Messenger). Later, it got shortened to Madinah (The City). It is still known as Madinah. Every Muslim worked in the construction of the Masjid (Mosque). Muhammad S worked very hard in its construction, like every one else. The Masjid (Mosque) was one hundred cubit long on the side of Qiblah (Front). Qiblah is the direction in which Muslims turn their faces for prayers. The Masjid Nabi (Mosque of the Messenger) was situated on an almost square lot. The plinth above the ground was about three cubits and was made with stones. Rest of the building was built with sun-baked mud bricks. Pillars were made of the palm trunks. The roof of the Masjid was made of palm branches. The Qiblah (Front) was facing the Bayt al Muqaddas (The Holy House) in Yarushalam (Jerusalem). Three gates were built in the Masjid. One gate was opposite the Qiblah (Front). Second gate was named Bab ar Rahmah (Gate of Mercy). It was later renamed as Bab al 'Atikah. Muhammad S used to enter the Masjid Nabi (Mosque of the Messenger) through the third gate. This gate was put towards the living quarters of Muhammad S and his family. Two small rooms were made in the same compound. These rooms were made with bricks. They were covered with trunks and branches of palm-trees. A per These Hujrat (Rooms) were the living quarters of 'A'ishah bint Abu Bakr R and Saudah bint Zam’ah R. These were the Ummul Mominin (Mothers of all Muslims). This title is used as a respect for the wives of the Rasul (Messenger). Later more Hujrat (Rooms) were added. The order of the Hujrat (Rooms) was: Umm Salamah Umm Habibah Zaynab bint Khuzayma Juwayriah, Maymunah Zaynab bint Jahsh on the Shami side while 'A'ishah Zaynab bint Huyayy (Safiyyah) and Saudah at the opposite side. There was a raised platform known as Suffah, at the one end of the Masjid (Mosque). Many people lived there. These people were known as the Ashab Suffah (People of Platform). They were totally dedicated for learning Islam. They had left their homes to learn Islam. The direction of Qiblah was changed from Bayt al Muqaddas to Ka'bah in 2 Hijrah (623 AD). A new gate was constructed at the north side of the Masjid (Mosque). In the meanwhile, Muhammad S sent Zayd bin Harithah R and Abu Rafi' R with two camels and five hundred Dirhams to Makkah. They brought Fatimah R and Umm Kulthum R, the two daughters of Muhammad S, and Sawdah bint Zam’ah R, his wife. They also brought Umm Ayman R and her son Usamah bin Zayd R. Ruqayyah R, another daughter of Muhammad S was with her husband 'Uthman bin 'Affan R in Habash (Ethiopia). Abu al 'As bin al Rabi', another son in-law of Muhammad S had not converted to Islam. He did not allow Zaynab R bint Muhammad S from migrating to Madinah. After the construction of Masjid Nabi (Mosque of the Messenger), Muhammad S established Muwakhah (Brotherhood) between the Muhajirun (Immigrants) and the Ansar. It was the unique bond reflecting the commands of Allah (God). Surah al-Anfal Qur-an 8:72 Those who believed and migrated and fought for the faith, with their property and their persons, in the cause of Allah, as well as those who gave (them) asylum and aid, - these are (all) friends and Protectors, one of another. Muhajirun had left all their property in Makkah. Most of them had literally nothing. Ansars treated them as their own brothers. They helped them generously. Muhajirun, on the other hand, tried their best to put the minimum possible burden on them. Sa'd bin al Rabi', an Ansar, offered half of his whole belongings to his Muwakhah brother, 'Abdur Rahman bin 'Auf. 'Abdur Rahman bin 'Auf, however, politely declined this generous offer. He only requested "Please guide me to the market place". He started on a very small scale his own business of cheese and butter. Within a few years his business developed to such an extent that his supplies started coming on more than seven hundred camels! Muwakhah was an unique way of fraternization. It created such relations in the tribe and clan-torn 'Arab society that in the event of the death of an Ansar, his Muhajir Muwakhah brother inherited his property. This system continued for a period until after the battle of Badr Allah commanded: Surah al-Anfal Qur-an 8:75 But kindred by blood have prior rights against each other in the Book of Allah. Verily Allah is well-acquainted with all things. Madinah, which was now to play the most vital role in the Islamic history, needed a state of harmony and tranquility. Only recently and freedom of faith being availed by the Muslims in Madinah. It was irritating them. So, soon they resorted for hostile measures. Just after the migration of Muhammad S, the Quraysh slapped a threat on the face of 'Abdullah bin Ubayy asking him to either kill the Muslims or drive them out of Madinah failing with the Quraysh would attack Madinah. 'Abdullah bin Ubayy was chief of the Ansars. He had not accepted Islam and he was an opponent of Muslims. Just before entering into the new faith, the Ansars had planned to crown him as his king. The advent of Islam ended his supremacy. Still, 'Abdullah was unable to execute the commands of Quraysh as majority of his people were now Muslims. But getting support from the Quraysh, the Jews and the Munafiqun started hatching conspiracies. In order to create a rift between the two tribes of the Ansar, the Jews started recalling the memories of the battle of B'ath, which had concluded only recently. The Jews had almost succeeded in dividing the Ansars, but the timely intervention of Muhammad S checked the recurrence of the old feud. On the other side, the Quraysh, all 'Arab customs regarding the pilgrimage to Ka'bah, started threatening the visiting Muslim pilgrims. They started their efforts to arrest the growth of Islam. For it they even warmed up other tribes, particularly those residing around Madinah to restrict all such persons from entering into Madinah who might be influenced by the principles of Islam and who were likely to enter into the faith of Muhammad S. Thus ensued an struggle between two systems. To them their idolatry and polytheism was dearest which, they felt, was instrumental in commanding the social and political leadership of whole 'Arabian Peninsula. They had great apprehensions that the Muhammad S faith would not only destroy their leadership over other tribes, but also cause great financial misery. Their apprehensions were based on the negation of the idols by Islam as without these idols, Ka'bah would cease to be the rallying point of thousands and thousands of 'Arab pilgrims costing Makkah a big loss of revenue from them. Islam, on the other hand, wanted that the truth and the true faith be established all around. It wanted that the sanctity of Ka'bah be retrieved and the spiritual glory of Makkah be re-established. The Muslims had great faith on Allah. Right from the beginning, Muhammad repeatedly asserted that through the true faith they are destined to be the leader of the whole world. Nonetheless, it was a conflict between two value systems, exclusive to each other. While the Quraysh wanted to continue their old social order based on the inequality and inequity, Islam advocated a new social order where the chief or the slave, all were given equality. While for the Quraysh, the lineage was the determining factor for the status and nobility of a person, Islam insisted on the virtues and deeds of the person. Obviously, the destruction of one system was precondition for the establishment of another. As the earlier events had testified, the Quraysh were not ready for a peaceful transition to the new system. The dividing line between the two was drawn at the very moment when Muhammad S made his first call to Islam. Initially it remained as the undercurrent and the Quraysh thought that tortures and repression would dissuade the handful people from dissenting, and they will return to the age-old system of idolatry. Hijrah was a turning point. Not only that it sharpened the conflict between the two systems, it also created a contradistinction between the two systems. Now it did not remain an internal matter of a tribe, the Quraysh. Their estranged tribes-men were now far from their territory. Unlike Hubashah, Muslims were not at the disposal of any ruler, but they were commanding their affairs on their own. Further, with a majority of Ansars entering into Islam, Madinah was now like a State, albeit in embryonic form, having unique social, political and spiritual features. So, the conflict between the Quraysh of Makkah with the Muslims in Madinah attained a higher stage. With each passing day, the contention and the conflict became sharper. Quraysh could now manage their status quo only by annihilating the forces of change - the Muslims and the Islam. Reconciled with the new realities, the Quraysh redoubled their efforts in this direction. Situation left no other option to Muhammad S except that he took on the challenges put forward by his adversaries. He was compelled to prepare his companions to counter the white terror unleashed by the Quraysh and their cohorts. Anyhow, now they had to achieve a balance of power, if not a supremacy over their opponents. It was the background in which Muslims decided to strike at the weakest point of the Quraysh. Trade was the bloodline of the Quraysh as the whole economy of Makkah virtually depended on it. Muhammad S dispatched small batches of his companions the two tribes of the Ansar had fought a bloody war which had weakened them much. The Jews were trying their best to frustrate any move of unity between the two tribes. So, much needed was an effective measure to curb any possible hostility from the side of the Jews which were observing with full anxiety the emergence of a new force united by bonds of a new faith. So it became necessary that the relations between the Jews and Muslims be defined in the most clear terms. Keeping all these things in mind, Muhammad S initiated and entered into a treaty with the Jews of Madinah. It was a historical treaty in which the Jews were assured of the security of their lives, properties and faith. The comprehensive treaty spelt their rights as well as their obligations towards Muslims. The treaty ensured that in the time of conflicts, they would help each other and none of them would lend security to Quraysh. It also made it clear that any attack on Madinah would be countered jointly by the Muslims and the Jews. Now in the Madinah, Muslims had peace to execute their obligations towards Allah. The Salah were organized. During the first Hijrah, the call for the prayers was fixed. Many suggesting came but the Prophet liked and Azan adopted it. He asked Bilal to make Azan. Till now, the Muslims used to offer two Rakah for Zuhr, 'Asr and 'Isha Salah. These were made of four Rikah. But the Quraysh in Makkah were unable to appreciate the peace to disturb and disrupt the trade caravans of Quraysh. The first campaign in this regard took place in Ramadan, 1H (Hijrah) about six months after Muhammad S Hijrah. Hamzah bin 'Abdul Muttalib led a batch of thirty Muhajirun to intercept a trade caravan of Quraysh led by Abu Jahl, the arch enemy of Islam. Abu Marthad Kannaz bin al Hussayn al Ghanawi got the honour to be the first to bear the flag of Islam. The flag was white and Muhammad S himself had prepared it. Abu Jahl was with a party of three hundred. The two parties met at Sif al Badr. A negotiation averted conflict but it reminded the Quraysh the vulnerability of their trade. The Muslims and the Quraysh engaged in a bloody battle for the first time in 2H (Hijrah) at Badr. The Quraysh were already busy in preparing for a long time to make a decisive and fatal onslaught on the Muslims. A rumor that the trade caravan of the Quraysh led bu Abu Sufyan bin Harb was most likely to be attacked by Muhammad S and his companions provided them the much-needed excuse to march toward Madinah and attack. The Quraysh were heavily armed. With a firm faith on Allah, ill-armed Muslims, numbering only sixty four countered one thousand-strong Quraysh army. Muslims got victory while the Quraysh lost all their eminent warriors and commanders while many were made captive. The battle of Badr was a serious blow to the Quraysh. It also draw the attention of the Jews and other tribes opposing Islam as it signaled the emergence of a new force on the 'Arabian horizon. So alerted by this phenomenon, the Jews and the Munafiqun collaborated with the Quraysh resulting in the battle of Uhud in which both sides, particularly the Muslims had to bear heavy casualty. Muhammad got injury in this battle. The battle of trenches was the fieriest attack that Madinah withstood successfully. It was the critical moment for the Islam and the Muslims as the Quraysh had mobilised all their resources. Many a tribe sided the Quraysh swelling their ranks to more than ten thousand. The Jewish ally of the Muslims, the tribe of Banu Qurayzah betrayed and sided with the attackers. The Arabia witnessed for the first time the use of trenches. This war strategy saved the Muslims. Now Madinah was a force to reckon with. But with each passing day, the might of Muslims grew. The Jews tried all their dirty tricks but all their conspiracies failed, and one by one, they had to make their exit from Madinah. The conflict between Quraysh and Muslims took a new turn when they entered into the Treaty of Hudaybiyah. In a way, the Quraysh of Makkah gave recognition to Madinah as a distinct political and spiritual entity. This was, thus, a recognition of Madinah as an Islamic State. By this time, the message of Islam - the message of truth and equality, revealed in stages had attained a high level of crystallisation and comprehensiveness. The time was now opportune for its dissemination among the mankind. So Muhammad S sent his epistles through his messengers to Heraclius, Khusro, and many other kings and men of power and invited them to Islam. The fall of Makkah was the ultimate vindication of the spiritual supremacy of Islam. Soon Madinah was crowded by the deputations of different tribes. Tribes after tribe entered into the fold of the new faith. It was after these deputations that the tenth year of the Hijrah, when these tribes came, was also known as the Year of Depuatations. Now, the time was no far when Madinah had to witness the surrender of the two contemporary empires - the Persia and the Buzantine before the stormy petrels of Islam. After the fall of Makkah, Muhammad did not return to Makkah, his parent city. It was his commitment to the Ansars he made before his Hijrah. Now Madinah was his city. He lived here and he died here. Yathrib beame Madinah al Nabi, meaning literaly the City of Prophet. Adoption of Madinah by Muhammad S as his city, however, never undermined the spiritual importance of Makkah. It remained the most sacred spiritual centre of Islam and its glory redoubled. Madinah, on the other hand, became the political and administrative centre. It was seat of power of the Islamic State. Madinah became the cradle of Islamic culture. It was Madinah where the revolutionary Islamic State was evolved and blossomed attracting the people worldwide. It was Madinah from where the fate of Persian and Byzantinian empires representing the decadant value systems was sealed. And it was Madinah wherein the revolutionary principles and policies of Islam took shape. The mankind will ever remain indebted Madinah for the heritage the city bestowed them.

List of the migrants to Habashiyah :
1. 'Uthman bin 'Affan R was the first person to migrate.
2. Ruqayyah R, wife of 'Uthman bin 'Affan R also migrated with him. Ruqayyah R was the daughter of Muhammad S.
3. Abu Huzayfah bin 'Utbah bin Rabiyah bin 'Abd Shams R.
4. Sahlah bint Suhayl bin 'Amr R wife of Abu Huzayfah bin 'Utbah R. She gave birth to a son, Muhammad bin Abu Huzayfah in Hubshiyah.
5. Zubayr bin al 'Awwam bin Khuwaylid bin Asad R.
6. Mus'ab bin 'Umayr bin Hashim bin 'Abd Manaf bin 'Abdud Dar R.
7. 'Abdur Rahman bin 'Auf bin 'Abdul Harith bin Zuhrah R.
8. Umm Salmah bint Abu Umayyah R wife of 'Abdur Rahman bin 'Auf R. 9. 'Uthman bin Maz'un R.
10. 'Amir bin Rabi'yah R and his wife
11. Layla bint Abu Hashmah R.
12. Abu Sirah bin Abu Ruhm R.
13. Suhayl bin Baydha' R. Leader of these migrant Muslims was 'Uthman bin Maz'un R.

Some other Muslims to migrate were:
1. Ja'far bin Abu Talib R.
2. Ja'far bin Abdul Muttalib bin Hashim R and his wife
3. Asma bint 'Umays R. Their son 'Abdullah bin Ja'far was born there.
4. 'Amr bin Sa'yid bin al 'As R and his wife
5. Fatimah bint Safwan R.
6. Khalid bin Sa'yid bin al 'As R and his wife
7. Umaynah bint Khalaf R. Two of their children Sa'yid bin Khalid and Umtah bint Khalid were born there.
8. 'Abdullah bin Jahsh R and his wife
9. Umm Habibah bint Abu Sufyan R.
10. 'Ubaydullah bin Jahsh R.
11. Qays bin 'Abdullah R and his wife
12. Barkah bint Yasar R (A freed slave girl of Abu Sufyan).
13. Mu'yiqib bin Abu Fatimah R.
14. Abu Huzayfah bin 'Utbah R.
15. 'Abdullah bin Qays R alias Abu Musa Ash'ari.
16. 'Utbah bin Ghazwan bin Jabir R.
17. Al Aswad bin Nawfal R.
18. Yazid bin Zama'ah bin al Aswad bin al Muttalib R.

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