Supplementary Readings in the English Language on the Life of the Prophet


Abuíl Fadl, Mirza (ed. and tr.). Muhammad in the Hadees, or Sayings of the Prophet Mohammad. Allahabad: Abbas Manzil Library, 195-.

Ahmad, Fazl. Muhammad, the Holy Prophet, "Heroes of Islam Series." Lahore: Ashraf, 1960.

Ahmad, Syed Khan Bahadur. Essays of the Life of Mohammed and Subjects Subsidiary Thereto, Vol. 1. London: Trubner, 1870.

Ali, Muhammad. The Living Thoughts of the Prophet Muhammad. London: Cassell, 1947.


Muhammad and Christ. Madras: S.P.C.K. Press, 1921.


Muhammad the Prophet. Lahore: Ahmadiyya Anjuman-i-Isha'at-iIslam, 1933.


Ali, Syed Ameer. A Critical Plxaniination of the Life and Teachings of Mohammed. London: William, 1873.

The Spirit of Islam, A History of the F'volrttion and Ideals of Islam with a Life of the Prophet. Amplified and revised ed.; London: Chattos and Windus, 1964.

Amin, Muhammad (ed.).. The Sayings of Prophet Muhanamad. Lahore: Lion Press, 1960.


Wisdom of Prophet Muhammad. Lahore: Lion Press, 1960.


Andrae, Tor. Mohammed: The Man and His Faith, translated by Theophil Menzel. New York: Barnes and Noble, 1957.

Azzam, Abdel Rahman. The Eternal Message of Muhammad, translated from the Arabic by Caesar E. Farah, with an introduction by Vincent Sheean. New York: Devin-Adair Co., 1964.

Bodley, Ronald Victor Courtenay. The Messenger: The Life of Muhammed. Garden City, New York: Doubleday and Co., Inc., 1946.

Bosworth-Smith, R. Mohammed and Mohammedanism. London: Murray, 1889.

Bush, Rev. George. The Life of Mohammed; Founder of the Religion of Islam, and of the Empire of the Saracens. New York: J. & J. Harper, 1830.

Carlyle, Thomas. On Heroes, Hero-Worship, and the Heroic in History (lecture 11). London: J. Fraser, 1841, and various other editions.

Draz, Muhammad 'Abd Allah. "Muhammad" in Islam, The Straight Path, ed. by Kenneth W. Morgan. New York: The Ronald Press, 1958.

Draycott, Gladys M. Mohomet Founder of Islam. New York: Dodd, Mead and Co., 1916.

Essad Bey. Mohammed: A Biography, translated by Helmut L. Ripperger. New York and Toronto: Longmans, Green and Co., 1936.

Foster, H. Frank. "An Autobiography of Mohammed," The Moslem World, XXVI (1936), 130-152.

Galwash, A. A. "The Life of Prophet Mohammad," The Religion of Islam. 5th ed.; Cairo: Imprimerie Misr, 1958.

al Ghazzali, Abu Hamid Muhammad. Ihya' 'Ulum al Din, Book XX, edited and translated by L. Zolondek. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1963.

Gibb, H. A. R. Mohammedanism, An Historical Survey. London: Oxford University Press, 1953.

Glubb, Sir John Bagot. The Life and Times of Muhammad. London: Hodder and Stoughton, and New York: Stein and Day, 1970.

Guillaume, Alfred. New Light on the Life of Muhammad. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1960.

Gulick, Robert. Muhammad, the Educator. Lahore: Institute of Islamic Culture, 1953.

Hakim, Khalifa Abdul. The Prophet and His Message. Lahore: Institute Of Islamic Culture, 1972.

Hamadeh, Muhammad Maher. "Muhammad the Prophet: A Selected Bibliography." Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Michigan University, 1965.

Hashmi, Rahm Ali. Mohammad, the Benefactor of Humanity, translation and condensation of the Urdu Mohsin-e-insaniyat by Naeem Siddiqi. Delhi, Board of Islamic Publications, 1971.

Hilliard, Frederick Hadaway. The Buddha, the Prophet, and the Christ. London and New York: G. Allen and Unwin and Macmillan, 1956.

Hosain, Saiyid Safdar. The Early History of Islam: An Impartial Review of the Early Islamic Period Compiled from Authentic Sources. Karachi: Mushtaq Ali K. Laddhani, 1971.

Husain, Athar. Prophet Muhammad and His Mission. Bombay and New York: Asia Publishing House, 1967.

Ibn Hisham, `Abd al-Malik. The Life of Muhammad: A Translation of ibn Ishdq's Sirat Rasul Allah. London and New York: Oxford 'University Press, 1955.

Ibn Sa'd, Muhammad. Kitab al-Tabaqat al Kabir, translated by S. Moinul Haq assisted by H. K. Ghazanfar. Karachi: Pakistan Historical Society, 1967.

Imamuddin, S. M. A Political History of Muslims: Prophet and Pious Caliphs. Dacca: Najmah, 1967.

Iqbal, Afzal. Diplomacy in Islam: An Essay on the Art of Negotiations as Conceived and Developed by the Prophet of Islam. Lahore: Institute of Islamic Culture, 1962.

Irving, Washington. Life of Mahomet. London: J. M. Dent and Sons, and New York: E. P. Dutton and Co., 1911.

Mahomet and His Successors, edited by Henry A. Pochmann and E. N. Feltskog. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1970.

Jeffery, Arthur. Islam: Muhammad and His Religion. New York: Liberal Arts Press, 1958.

Johnstone, P. DeLacy. Muhammad and His Power. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1901.

Khan, Inamullah. Maxims of Mohummud. Karachi: Umma Pub. House, 1965.

Lane-Poole, Stanley. The Prophet and Islam, abridged from 1879 edition. Lahore: National Book Society, 1964.

Liu Chai-Lien. The Arabian Prophet: A Life of Mohammed from Chinese and Arabic Sources, translated by Isaac Mason. Shanghai: Commercial Press, Ltd., 1921.

Margoliouth, D. S. Mohammed and the Rise of Islam. London: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1905.

Merrick, J. L. (tr.). Life and Religion of Mohammed as Contained in the Sheeah Traditions of the Hyat-ul-Kuloob. Boston: Phillips, 1850.

Mohy-ud-Din, Ata. The Arabian Prophet: His Message and Achievements. Karachi: Ferozsons, 1955.

Muir, Sir William. The Life of Mohammad from Original Sources, a new and revised edition by T. H. Weir. Edinburgh: J. Grant, 1923.

Nadvi, Muzzaffar Uddin. An Easy History of the Prophet of Islam. Lahore: M. Ashraf, 1954.

Pike, Edgar Royston. Mohammed, Prophet of the Religion of Islam. 2nd ed.; London: Weidenfeld, 1968.

Rahnama, Zayn al `Abidin. Payambar: The Messanger, translated by L. P. Elwell-Sutton. Lahore: Sh. M. Ashraf, 1964-65.

Rodinson, Maxime. Mohammed, translated by Anne Carter. New York: Pantheon Books, 1971.

Sarwar, Hafiz Ghulam. Muhammad the Holy Prophet. Lahore: Sh. Muhammad Ashraf, 1964.

Shibli Numani, Muhammad. `Allamah Shibli's Sirat al-Nabi, translated by Fazlur Rahman. Karachi: Pakistan Historical Society, 1970.

Siddiqui, Abdul Hameed. The Life of Muhammad. Lahore: Islamic Publications, 1969.

Smith, Reginald Bosworth. Mohammed and Mohammedanism, lectures delivered at the Royal Institution of Great Britain in 1874. London: Smith, Elder and Co., 1874.

Sprenger, Aloys. Life of Mohammad from Original Sources. Allahabad, 1851.

Stobart, James William Hampson. Islam and Its Founder. London: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge; and New York: Pott, Young, and Co., 1877.

Suhrawardy, Sir Abdullah al-Mamun. The Sayings of Muhammad. London: J. Murray, 1954.

Wahab, Syed Abdul. The Shadowless Prophet of Islam: Being- a Treatise on the Spiritual Aspect of the Prophet's Life and Spiritualism of Islam as Taught by Him. Lahore: Sh. Muhammad Ashraf, 1962.

Waheeduddin Fakir, Syed. The Benefactor, translation of Mohsin-e-Axam and Mohsanin, English text revised by Faiz Ahmed Faiz. Karachi: Lion Art Press, 1964.

Watt, William Montgomery. Muhammad at Mecca. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1960.


Muhammad at Medina. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1966.


Muhammad: Prophet and Statesman. London: Oxford University Press, 1961.


Wessels, Antonie. A Modern Arabic Biography of Muhammad: A Critical Study of Muhammad Husayn Haykal's Hayat Muhammad. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1972.

Widengren, George. Muhammad, the Apostle of God, and His Ascension. Uppsala: Lundequistska Bokhandeln, 1955.


Their Rebellion

One day Hafsah went to her father's house complaining about this situation. While the Prophet was in her room, Mariyah came to him and stayed with him some time. Upon Hafsah's return she found the Prophet and Mariyah in her quarters and, as she waited for them to come out, her jealousy broke all bounds. When, finally, Mariyah left the quarters and Hafsah entered, she said to the Prophet: "I have seen who was here. By God, that was an insult to me. You would not have dared do that if I amounted to anything at all in your eyes." At the moment Muhammad realized that such deep-lying jealousy might even move Hafsah to broadcast what she had seen among the other wives. In an attempt to please her, Muhammad promised that he would not go unto Mariyah if she would only refrain from broadcasting what she had seen. Hafsah promised to comply. However, she could not keep her promise as jealousy continued to affect her disposition. Hence, she intimated the secret to `A'ishah, who in turn reported it to the Prophet. He took it as evidence of Hafsah's failure to keep her promise. Perhaps the affair did not stop with Hafsah and `A'ishah but spread to the other wives. Perhaps, too, all of them had noticed the high esteem in which Mariyah was held and sympathized with `A'ishah and Hafsah's opposition to the Prophet. There is nothing unusual in the whole story, such gossip and petty jealousies being commonplace between man and his many wives. A man's affection belongs where he puts it within his household, and the controversy which the daughters of Abu Bakr and 'Umar had woven around the Prophet's affection for Mariyah was utterly groundless. Previously we had seen that some disaffection had risen between the Prophet and his wives on various occasions because of the pocket money he allocated to them, or because of the honey Zaynab used to serve. Therefore, they had all the more reason to feel slighted and no little alienated when they discovered their husband's inclination toward 'A'ishah or his esteem for Mariyah.

An explosion was soon to come. One day, while the Prophet was staying with 'A'ishah, his other wives delegated Zaynab, daughter of Jahsh, to go in and, in their name, to accuse him of injustice and unfairness to them, and to plead that his love for `A'ishah was a violation of the code which he himself had set down of a day and night for each of his wives. On the other hand, realizing that the Prophet did not care very much for her charms, and being no longer anxious to please him, Sawdah had given up her day and night to `A'ishah. But Zaynab was not satisfied with expressing the other wives' indignation at this apparent injustice. She attacked `A'ishah personally. The latter was anxious to defend herself, but kept still in response to the Prophet's reconciliating pleas. Seeing that `A'ishah was defenseless, Zaynab went to excess in her accusations, and the Prophet finally had to permit his favorite wife to take her defense into her own hands. `A'ishah spoke out with great eloquence in refuting Zaynab's claims. The Prophet listened with obvious satisfaction and admired the perspicacity of Abu Bakr's daughter.

Indeed, favoritism for some of his wives had created such controversy and antagonism among the "Mothers of the Believers" that Muhammad once thought of divorcing some of them, but they soon agreed to let him distribute his favors as he pleased. When Mariyah gave birth to Ibrahim, their jealousy was at its strongest, especially in the case of `A'ishah. Certainly, Muhammad's leniency and gentleness encouraged rebellion, and the new status which he had conferred upon women in society fanned their vanity. Muhammad, however, was not free to spend his time dealing with household problems. The need soon came to be felt for a decisive lesson to reestablish discipline and to liberate him for teaching the message and fulfilling the mission of his prophethood. Hence, he decided to ignore his wives and, indeed, to threaten them with divorce. A lesson had to be taught to them, and the time had apparently come for a decision. Either these women were to return to reason or they would be given their freedom in a mutually convenient divorce.


The Prophet's Separation from His Wives

Muhammad isolated himself from all his women for a full month and refused to talk about them to anyone. Nor did anyone dare talk to him concerning them. During this month, his mind was absorbed by his mission and the requirement of carrying the message of Islam beyond the Arabian Peninsula. Abu Bakr, `Umar, and his other in-laws as well, were deeply concerned over the sad fate that awaited the "Mothers of the Believers" now that they had exposed themselves to the anger of the Prophet and the consequent punishment of God. It was even said that Muhammad had divorced Hafsah, `Umar's daughter, after she had divulged the secret she had promised to keep. The marketplace of Madinah hummed with rumors about the impending divorce of the Prophet's wives. The wives, for their part, were repentent and apprehensive. They regretted that their jealousy of one another had carried them away, that they had abused and harmed their gentle husband who was to each one of them at all times an elder brother, a compassionate father, a nearest kin, and the best of everything that might be hoped for in this life and the next. Muhammad spent most of his time in a storeroom he owned, placing his servant Rabah at its doorstep as long as he was inside. Therein he used to sleep on a very hard bed of coarse date branches.