The Effects of Uhud
Muhammad's Policy after Uhud
After Uhud, Abu Sufyan returned to Makkah preceded by the news of his victory. He arrived home exalted and overjoyed for having removed from Quraysh the stain of defeat at Badr. As soon as he entered the city and before setting foot in his residence, he went to the Ka'bah where he offered thanksgiving and prayers to its high god Hubal. He then shaved his sideburns and returned to his residence feeling that the vow he had made not to touch his wife until he had defeated Muhammad had now been fulfilled. The Muslims, on the other hand, despite the fact that they spent three whole days in the open, challenging their enemy to return and engage them without avail, were derided by the Madinese. Nobody mentioned, the Muslim victory in the first round of battle. Evidently, Madinah was simply not favorable to the Muslims, Muhammad's great political power notwithstanding. The Prophet-May God's peace and blessing be upon him-felt this hostility strongly, not only from Madinah but also from all the surrounding Arab tribes who only a few days earlier feared and respected Muslim power. The Battle of Uhud had enabled the non-Muslim elements of Madinah and its surroundings to dare to stand in the face of Muhair mad and even to oppose him. Hence Muhammad took especial care to keep himself abreast of developments within and without the city, and he prepared himself for recapturing and reestablishing Muslim power and reputation.
The Campaign of Abu Salamah ibn `Abd al Asad
The first news of enemy movement that came to Muhammad's ear told that Tulayhah and Salamah, sons of Khuwaylid and leaders of Banu Asad, were inciting their tribesmen and clients to attack Madinah and to seek Muhammad in his own house. They were also inciting them to raid the city outskirts to seize the cattle of the Muslims. Apparently, they were emboldened by the consideration that Muhammad and his companions were still shaken by defeat and that their power was on the decline. As soon as the Prophet heard of this, however, he sent forth Abu Salamah ibn `Abd al Asad at the head of an expeditionary force of one hundred and fifty fighters including Abu `Ubaydah ibn al Jarrah, Sa'd ibn Abu Waqqas, and Usayd ibn Hudayr. He ordered the force to march by night along untrodden paths, to lie still by day, and to surprise the enemy wherever possible. Abu Salamah followed the instructions of the Prophet and found his enemy unprepared. Shortly before dawn, he talked to his men, inspiring them to holy war, and they attacked. The enemy ran away in defeat. The Muslims pursued them and returned after having stripped them of all their possessions. They divided the booty among themselves after saving one fifth of it for God, His Prophet, the poor, and the wayfarer; then they returned to Madinah victorious. Their accomplishment restored some of the Muslim prestige which had been lost at Uhud. Abu Salamah, however, did not live long after this raid, for his wound at Uhud had not been completely cured. His participation in this raid, during which he reopened the wound, finally brought about his death.
The Campaign of `Abdullah ibn Unays
Later Muhammad learned that Khalid ibn Sufyan ibn Nubayb al Hudhali was either at Nakhlah or `Uranah arousing the people and inciting them to raid Madinah. He commanded `Abdullah ibn Unays to travel to Madinah in order to reconnoiter for him. After going forth, `Abdullah found Khalid in the company of women. When asked by Khalid about his identity, `Abdullah answered, "I am an Arab tribesman who has heard of you and of the army you are raising to fight Muhammad and I have come to you to join your ranks." Khalid did not hide the fact that he was actually raising an army in order to attack Madinah. In a moment of separation from his men, and in the company of his women, `Abdullah asked Khalid to walk with him a little while in order to discuss certain affairs. When they were at a safe distance, he fell on him with his sword and killed him. Khalid's women were the only witnesses and they began to cry and mourn for him. `Abdullah returned home and informed the Prophet of his exploits. This single-handed campaign had the effect of silencing the Banu Lihyan branch of the Hudhayl tribe for some time. But the Band Libyan began to think of ways and means to avenge the murder of their leader.
The Battle of al Raji` (625 C.E)
About this time, a group of tribesmen living in the district of Muhammad came to him saying, "There are some Muslims among us. Please send with us some of your companions to teach us the law of Islam and to recite the Qur'an." Muhammad was in the habit of sending his companions upon request to such areas and tribes in order to perform such religious functions and to call men to the true faith and guidance as well as to find new political allies. It will be recalled that Muhammad sent such companions to Madinah after the great covenant of `Aqabah. In fulfillment of this new request, Muhammad sent six of his notable companions. When they were all camping at a welt belonging to the tribe of Hudhayl in the Hijaz at a place called al Raji', their host betrayed them to the Hudhayl tribe. The six Muslims arose to find that they were surrounded by enemies with drawn swords. They drew their swords too and prepared for battle. But the Hudhayl tribesmen said, "It is not our intention to kill you but to sell you as captives to the people of Makkah. Lay down your swords and we solemnly promise that we shall not kill you." The Muslims looked to one another and decided that a humiliating captivity in Makkah was far worse than loss of life. Rejecting the promise of Hudhayl, they began to fight knowing that they were outnumbered. Hudhayl killed three of them and overpowered the other three. They tied their hands and drove them toward Makkah. `Abdullah ibn Talib managed to pull his hands free and seized his sword to fight his captors. But they overwhelmed and killed him. The other two captives were brought to Makkah and sold by the Hudhayl. Zayd ibn al Dathinah was purchased by Safwan ibn Umayyah in order to be killed in revenge for his father, Umayyah ibn Khalaf. The captive was given over to Safwan's servant Nastas for execution. Abu Sufyan questioned the captive: "Tell me, 0 Zayd, would you not prefer that Muhammad were here in your place to receive this last punishment while you were at home with your people?" Zayd answered, "No! By God, I certainly prefer that Muhammad be where he is, safe from all harm. That is more preferable to me than reunion with my people." Stupefied, Abu Sufyan rejoined, "Never have I seen anyone more beloved by his companions than Muhammad." Nastas executed the order of his master and killed Zayd, the man who remained true to his religion and Prophet. As for Khubayb, lie was kept in jail until such time as they would crucify him. In his last hour, he asked to be allowed to pray, and they let him. After completion of his prayer, he exclaimed "By God, were I not afraid that you might think I was not ready to die, I would have prolonged my prayer." They lifted him to the cross and tied him to it. With great passion, he prayed to God "O God, reduce their numbers, rout, and disperse them, do not let any one of them escape." There was such a ring in his voice that his executioners were seized with panic and fell to the ground as if his curse had really struck them. Like Zayd before him, Khubayb died a martyr, true to his Creator, and loyal to His religion and Prophet. It would have been possible for these two pure soils to save themselves from death if they had apostatized. But their conviction of God, of His Spirit, of the Day of Judgment-the Day on which every soul will receive its due, and no vicarious substitutes will be allowed-caused them to see death ,is a fitting finale for the life of faith. Undoubtedly, they must have believed that their innocent lives now being laid down on Makkan soil would one day arouse their Muslim brethren to conquer that city, destroy its idols, and purify it from paganism and associationism. They were certain that someday the Ka'bah should rightly be sanctified as the House of God ought to be and that someday its walls would reverberate with none but the name of God alone.
The western Orientalists do not note this event as they do the execution of the two captives of Badr by the Muslims. None of them has even condemned this treacherous execution of two innocent Muslims who participated in no war but who were dragged stealthily into the enemy camp while they were teaching the very men who were planning their murder or sale to their enemies. None of them had thought to condemn the Quraysh despite the fact that its behavior in this case was nothing short of cowardice and cold-blooded murder. The rules of the most primitive justice would have required of those western Orientalists who condemned the Muslims' execution of the two Badr captives that they condemn, a fortiori, this treason of Quraysh and of the men who sold her the two captives after killing their four colleagues. Neither did Quraysh capture them in an honest fight. It bought them from people who tricked them into their camp by inviting them to be the teachers of truth, to instruct, and to enlighten them in matters of the faith.
Muhammad and the Muslim community were saddened by the news of the martyrdom of their six colleagues as a result of the treachery of Hudhayl. Hassan ibn Thabit, the Muslim poet, composed a poem in their memory in which Khubayb and Zayd were objects of the warmest compassion and mourning. The event gave Muhammad reason to ponder and to fear deterioration of Muslim prestige in case such events were to recur. Nothing, of course, is more harmful to one's prestige than to be slighted by the larger community. As he was engaged in these thoughts, he was approached by Abu Bara `Amir ibn Malik, to whom Muhammad offered the faith of Islam. Abu Bara turned down the offer of Muhammad, but he did not show any enmity to the new faith. On the contrary, he asked Muhammad to send some of his companions to the people of Najd .in order to preach Islam to them. "Perhaps," he said, "they may respond favorably and enter the faith." Muhammad feared that any such companions whom he might send to Najd might be subject to treacherous attack as had befallen Khubayb and his companions on the part of the Hudhayl tribe. Unmoved, he therefore rejected Abu Bara’s request. Abu Bara said, "I shall be their guardian and protector. Send them over, therefore, and let them preach the faith." Abu Bara was a notable with large influence among his people. No one had reason to fear when Abu Bara had extended his personal protection to him. With this consideration, Muhammad sent al Mundhir ibn `Amr, brother of Banu Sa'idah, together with other men chosen from the foremost Muslim ranks.
The Battle of Bi'r Ma'unah
Delegates and escorts proceeded together until they reached the well of Ma'unah, at the frontier between Banu 'Amir and Banu Sulaym. From there, they sent Hardin ibn Milhan to `Amir ibn al Tufayl with Muhammad's message. `Amir, not even bothering to read Muhammad's letter, killed its carrier forthwith. He then called on the tribesmen of Banu `Amir to kill all the Muslims. When his tribesmen refused to violate the protection already extended by Abu Bara, `Amir summoned other tribes to do the job. A number of these responded to his call, gave fight to the Muslims, surrounded them completely, and killed them. Not one Muslim survived this battle except Ka'b ibn Zayd and `Amr ibn Umayyah. The former was left wounded in the field on the assumption that he was dead, and the latter was set free by `Amir ibn al Tufayl as atonement for a vow involving a man's life which his mother owed. On his way home, `Amir met two men on the road whom he mistook as part of the enemy hosts which killed his companions. He waited until they had gone to sleep and then sprang upon them and killed them. When he reached Madinah, he gave the Prophet a full report of what he did and what had happened. It then turned out that the two men whom he killed were clients of `Amir and proteges of Abu Bara, with whom the Prophet had entered into a covenant of good neighborliness. The Prophet therefore commanded him to pay their bloodwits.
The fall of the Muslim martyrs at the well of Ma’unah deeply grieved Muhammad. He blamed Abu Bard' for this loss since he was the author of the request which Muhammad had satisfied, but only with apprehension and after much hesitation. Abu Bara for his part, was extremely wrathful against `Amir ibn al Tufayl for violating his protective covenant with the Muslims; and sent his own son, al Raji, to kill `Amir in vengeance for the violated honor. Mourning his colleagues for one whole month, Muhammad asked God fervently at every morning prayer to enable him to avenge their death. All the Muslims were deeply affected by this tragedy that had befallen their brethren in religion, though they believed that the martyrs were all in Paradise.
The Jews and Munafiqun of Madinah
The Jews and the munafiqun of Madinah found in the tragedies of Al Raji and Bi'r Ma'unah occasion to remember the victory of Quraysh at Uhud and to forget the Muslim victory over Banu Asad. In consequence, the prestige of the Prophet and his companions declined, and grave concern was directed to the Muslims' political fortune. With proper foresight, Muhammad realized that this deterioration of Muslim prestige in Madinah had exposed the whole cause to the greatest danger. Nothing would so inspire the tribes to dig their claws into Madinah as the suspicion that an attack upon the Muslims would immediately bring about civil war within their city. Muhammad also observed that both the Jews and the munafiqun were plotting against him. He therefore decided to force them into betraying their intentions. As the Jews of Banu al Nadir were the allies of Banu `Amir, Muhammad went to them near Quba', together with ten of his prominent companions-including Abu Bakr, `Umar, and `Ali and asked them to cooperate in furnishing the bloodwit money for the two victims whom `Amr ibn Umayyah had killed by mistake, not knowing of their convenant with the Muslims.
Jewish Plots against Muhammad
When Muhammad submitted his request to them, they pretended acquiescence to his demand. But it was also noticeable that while some of them were showing signs of reconciliation, others were plotting at a safe distance. They whispered to one another in presence of the Muslims, and the Prophet overheard them mentioning the murder by the Muslims of Ka'b ibn al Ashraf. When one of them, `Amr ibn Jahsh ibn Ka'b, entered the house on whose wall Muhammad was leaning, in a suspicious and stealthy manner, Muhammad could no more contain his doubts which their talk and hush-hush conversation made gradually more certain. He rose and withdrew from their midst, leaving behind his companions and giving, the impression that he was soon to return. The Jews knew that he was leaving for good and addressed his companions incoherently and hesitantly. They realized that if they were to kill his men, Muhammad would surely take a bitter revenge. But if they let them go, the Jewish plot against Muhammad would not be betrayed, and at any rate they could count on the Muslims to continue to honor their part of the covenant. They therefore tried to convince their Muslim guests of their good intentions and to counteract any suspicions that their guests may have entertained. Soon, the companions began to complain that the Prophet had not returned and that they had better leave and look for him. They met a man on the way who assured them that Muhammad had safely returned to the mosque. When they joined him, the Prophet told them of his suspicions and of the Jewish plot to kill him. They then realized the meaning of Jewish behavior and understood their moves at the recent interview. They became convinced of the Prophet's penetrating insight, which seemed all the more convincing when joined to the evidence of their own observations.
Warning to Banu al Nadir
Commanding Muhammad ibn Maslamah, the Prophet said: "Go to the Jews of Banu al Nadir and tell them that I have sent you to them with the command that they should leave this country. Tell them that by plotting to kill me, they have violated the covenant which I gave them. Tell them also that I give them ten days to evacuate after which any Jew seen in this area will be killed." When they heard of this command, Banu al Nadir lost hope. In vain they looked for means to change the verdict. Seeking to sway the Prophet', messenger to their own side, they said: "0 Muhammad ibn Maslamah, we did not expect that such command be conveyed by an old ally of ours like you, a man from al. Aws tribe which is our ally against the Khazraj." Ibn Maslamah replied, "The times have changed and so have the affiliations."
Instigation to Defy the Prophet
The Jews spent a number of days preparing for war. In the meantime, `Abdullah ibn Ubayy sent to them two messengers with the message that they should not depart from their land and property, that they should remain in their fortresses, and that soon he himself would be coming to their assistance with two thousand Jewish and Arab fighters prepared to defend them to the death. Rams al Nadir pondered over the message of Ibn Ubayy and wondered how he could have felt so certain of victory. They recalled that the same man had previously promised help to Banu Qaynuqa`, just as he was doing today, but betrayed them when his help was needed by running for his life. They considered that since Banu Qurayzah had contracted a peace with Muhammad, they would not be prepared to come to their rescue. Hence, they inclined toward removing themselves to Khaybar or a nearer place, considering that they could still come to Yathrib to harvest their crops and return to their fortresses at Khaybar with no appreciable loss. Huyayy ibn Akhtab, their leader, finally resolved against this view. "No," he said "I shall send to Muhammad telling him that we shall not leave our homes and properties and that we refuse to comply with his orders. As for us, all we have to do is to consolidate our fortresses, to fill up our granaries, to barricade our streets, to supply ourselves with stones, and to get ready. We have enough food reserves to keep us for a full year and our water supply never runs dry. At any rate, Muhammad will not blockade us for as long a time as a year." The ten days therefore passed and no Jew left Madinah.
Blockade of Banu al Nadir
The Muslims took up arms and began to fight the Jews. For twenty days and nights the battle raged. Whenever a Jew showed up on the public street or outside of his quarters, the Muslims would engage him in battle. But the Jews would withdraw quickly and often would even destroy their own property or houses before withdrawal to deeper lines. Subsequently, Muhammad ordered his companions to cut down the date trees and to burn them in order to reduce the Jews' will to stay in Madinah to protect and enjoy their properties. The Jews were angry and argued, "0 Muhammad, how could you, who always forbade corruption and injustice and castigated their perpetrators, command the destruction of our date orchards?" On this occasion the following verse was revealed: "Whatever tree you have cut down or left standing, you have done so with God's permission that the unjust may be overwhelmed."[Qur'an, 59:5] The Jews waited in vain for military assistance to come from the side of ibn Ubayy or from that of some other Arab tribes, and they dreaded the fate which awaited them in case they prolonged the hostilities. In despair and with hearts trembling with fear, they asked Muhammad to guarantee their lives and properties and to give them safe passage. Muhammad agreed, permitting each one to take with him three camel loads of whatever property of goods they wanted to take away. Huyayy ibn Akhtab, their leader, led this exodus; the emigrants settled either at Khaybar or at Adhri'at in al Sham. They left behind them large amounts of booty consisting of food, fifty pieces of armour, three hundred and forty swords, and large areas of land. This prize was greater than anything the Muslims had so far seized. These properties were not divided among the Muslims as war booty. They were all considered as a trust which the Prophet of God divided among the early emigrants, after putting away some for the purposes of the poor and deprived. Thus the necessary economic support of the Muhajirun by al Ansar was alleviated for the first time, the Muhajirun having now acquired as much wealth as their hosts. None of the Ansar received any of this new wealth except Abu Dujanah and Sahl ibn Hunayf. When they pleaded to Muhammad that they were really in need, Muhammad ,rave them as liberally as the Muhajirun. All the Jews of Banu al Nadir left Madinah except two who converted to Islam and kept their property.
It is by no means easy to appreciate the true significance of the Muslim victory and of the forced evacuation of Banu al Nadir from Madinah. The Prophet's apprehension of what their presence in Madinah might lead to by way of civil strife, of emboldening the munafiqun to plot against the Muslims whenever the latter suffered a set-back, and of the actual threat of civil war in case of outside attack-all these weighed heavily in the Prophet's consideration. On the occasion of the evacuation of Banu al Nadir, the whole Surah of "al Hashr" was revealed. In it God said: "Would you not see the munafiqun, how they falsely promise their brethren-the faithless among the People of the Book-to join them in evacuation if that were imposed, to refuse obedience to anyone against them, and to come to their rescue in case of war? God knows that they lie. The People of the Book are forced to evacuate; yet, the munafiqun would not leave with them, and should the former be fought, they would not come to their assistance but would run away without giving rescue. Indeed, they fear you more than they fear God, little that they think or know."[Qur'an, 59:11-13]
The Surah continues with a discussion of faith and its power over the human soul and asserts that only recognition of God gives the human soul value and dignity such as no other recognition of any power can give. The Qur'an said
"God is the Being besides Whom there is no other God. He knows that which no man knows and He is the Merciful, the Compassionate. God is the Being besides Whom there is no other God. He is the King, the Holy, the Peace-giver, the Securer, the Dominant, the Mighty, the Great, the Unchallengeable. Praised be He above everything they associate with Him. God is the Creator, the Fashioner, the Form-giver. To Him belong the noble names. To Him everything on earth and in heaven gives praise. He is the Omnipotent, the Wise."[Qur'an, 59:22-24]
The Prophet's Secretary
Until the exit of Banu al Nadir from Madinah, the Prophet's secretary was a Jew. He had chosen him for his capacity to write letters in Hebrew and Syriac, as well as Arabic. After the evacuation of the Jews from Madinah, the Prophet no longer trusted a non-Muslim to write his letters. He therefore commanded Zayd ibn Thabit, a Madinese youth, to learn the two languages and appointed him his secretary for all affairs. The same Zayd ibn Thabit collected the Qur'an during the caliphate of Abu Bakr, supervised the collection of the Qur'an when the readings of it varied during the caliphate of `Uthman, and finally established the text known as "the recension of `Uthman," after which all other texts were destroyed.
The city of Madinah recovered its peace after the evacuation of Banu al Nadir. The Muslims no more feared the munafiqun, and the Muhajirun were quite satisfied with the new lands they had acquired. On the other hand, al Ansar were equally happy that there was no further need to support the Muhajirun. The period was generally one of peace and tranquility as well as prosperity for both Muhajirun and Ansar. This continued until the following year when, on the occasion of the memory of Uhud, Muhammad remembered the promise of Abu Sufyan to fight the Muslims again a year thence to the day. Muhammad also recalled that Abu Sufyan had challenged to meet him once more at Badr, on the Day of Badr, a year later. The year was one of drought and Abu Sufyan wished to postpone the encounter for another year. Nonetheless, he sent Nu'aym to Madinah to inform the Muslims that Quraysh had rallied a tremendous army such as the Arabs had never seen before, that Makkah was planning to fight them and destroy them once and for all and inflict upon them unheard of misery and destruction. The Muslims first reacted with apprehension and fear and were more eager to remain in Madinah than go out to meet their enemy at Badr. Muhammad was indignant. He castigated their cowardice and warned them that he was going to Badr even if he had to do so alone.
The Would-be Encounter at Badr
After this show of anger on the part of the Prophet, it was not surprising that all hesitation and all fear on the part of the Muslims dissolved and that they picked up their arms in order to run to Badr. The Prophet appointed `Abdullah ibn `Abdullah ibn Ubayy ibn Salul to govern Madinah in his absence. The Muslims arrived at Badr and waited there for the Quraysh army to come forth. Quraysh, on the other hand, sent two thousand fighters under the leadership of Abu Sufyan. Abu Sufyan, however, was not enthusiastic about the whole affair, and he decided to return to Makkah two days after he left. He advised his people that since they could not do well in war outside of Makkah except in a fertile and prosperous year, and since that year was one of drought and poverty, it was better for them to return home and not to fight Muhammad. He returned to Makkah and the army returned with him while Muhammad awaited them eight long days in their encampment at Badr. While waiting for their enemy to appear, the Muslims began a little trade and they made large gains for which they thanked God. It was on the occasion of this would-be encounter that the following Qur'anic verses were revealed
"To those who did not go to war but remained behind complaining, `Had they only listened to us and not gone out to war they would not have been killed,' [Allah says,] `If you are truthful in your allegation, will you not seek to avoid death altogether and become immortal? Think not that those who have laid down their lives for the sake of God are dead. Rather, they are alive, in presence of their Lord, and they receive His gifts. They are happy with what God had given them of His bounty and they are awaiting with joy the arrival of those who were not as fortunate but who have neither reason to grieve nor to sorrow. They are jubilant with God's bounty and grace, for God never suffers the reward of the believers to be lost. On the other hand, those who responded to God's call and the Prophet's even after they had been wounded in previous battles, and to those of them who have done well and have been pious, will fall the great reward. As to those whom the enemy wished to frighten by reports of the rallying of great armies, but whose faith grew stronger at the challenge and who said, "Sufficient for us is God, for He is the most excellent Guardian," to them God will show His favor and grant His bounty. No evil has befallen them, only God's blessing and benediction. God is the Lord of great bounty. It is Satan, rather, that instills fear in his friends and associates. Do not fear your enemies, therefore, but fear Me if you are true believers."[Qur'an, 3:168-75]
This would-be encounter at Badr erased completely every trace of Uhud. Quraysh had no alternative but to wait another whole year, enduring in the meantime an opprobrium no less great than that of her first defeat at Badr.
Campaign of Dhat at Riqa
Fully satisfied with the implicit victory God had sent to him, Muhammad returned to Madinah. He was content that the Muslims recaptured their prestige, but he kept constant vigilance lest the enemy should cheat him once more. In the meantime, the news reached him that a group from Ghatafan in Najd were rallying an army to fight him. He planned to surprise them before they could complete their preparations. Gathering a force of four hundred, he led his men to Dhat al Riqa` where the Banu Muharib and Banu Tha'labah of Ghatafan had rallied. The Muslims took the initiative of surprise attack, and the enemy ran away leaving behind their women, equipment, and property. Of these the Muslims carried what they could and returned to Madinah. Taking care lest the enemy launch a surprise attack against them in turn, the Muslims established night and day sentries, and Muhammad would only allow short prayers to be held. While some of them prayed, the others would face the enemy fully prepared for defense. The enemy, however, never showed his face; and the Prophet returned to Madinah fifteen days after they had left it, jubilant and victorious.
Campaign of Dawmat al Jandal
A little later, the Prophet led another campaign to Dawmat al Jandal. This is an oasis on the frontier between al Hijaz and al Sham, midway between the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf. There again, Muhammad could not find the tribes whom he had come to punish for their attack upon the caravans. For as soon as any heard that he was on his way, they would run, unmindful of what the Muslims might carry away of their property as booty. The geographic location of Dawmat al Jandal shows the ample extent of Muhammad and his companions' political influence and military sway. In fact, the Arabian Peninsula shook under their feet. The foregoing accounts give equally clear evidence of Muslim endurance, of their disregard for excessive heat, for the desolateness of the countryside and shortage of water. These reports testify to the Muslims' readiness to lay down their lives for the cause of God and to the determination of their faith in Him as One.
After all these exploits and campaigns, it was time for Muhammad to settle down in Madinah for a few months before Quraysh would trouble him again in fulfillment of Abu Sufyan's resolution to make annual battle with the Muslims. In the meantime, the Prophet had plenty to do to complete the organization of the nascent Islamic society and to order and structure its various elements on the basis of revelation, i.e., of what may be safely deduced from revealed truths. Muhammad elaborated a complete system of rules for the guidance of man, state and society, which his companions canonized after his death and which still stands viable for all ages.